Attributable gold production of 3.94Moz for the year was 9% or 387,000oz lower than 2011.
Production from the South Africa region of 1.21Moz was 412,000oz or 25% lower than 2011. The operating environment in South Africa remained challenging, with increased safety-related stoppages imposed by the Department of Mineral Resources continuing to be disruptive, especially in the first half of the year. An industry-wide, unprotected strike straddling the third and the fourth quarter also affected the operations. The total loss of production as a result of the strike and the subsequent safe return and ramp-up to full production, is estimated at around 235,000oz. Seismicity at Mponeng and TauTona also had a negative impact on production.
Production from the Continental Africa region decreased by 3%, or 49,000oz to 1.52Moz. Obuasi’s production was 11% lower than the previous year at 280,000oz due to lower grades, equipment availability and late stope preparation combined with the change in the contractor. Sadiola’s production fell 17% to 100,000oz due to a decrease in recovered grade limited by availability of oxide ore sources. At Morila, production was 18% lower at 81,000oz due to the processing of marginal stockpiles, compared to full-grade ore in the previous year. Iduapriem’s production declined 10% to 180,000oz in 2012, mainly a result of lower recovered grades. These shortfalls were partially mitigated by 7% higher production at Geita of 531,000oz.
In the Americas region, production increased by 7%, by 62,000oz to 953,000oz. At Cerro Vanguardia, production rose 12% or 23,000oz to 219,000oz as a result of higher recovered grades. At AGA Mineração, production increased by 7% to 388,000oz as a result of a ramp up of production from the Córrego do Sítio sulphide project commissioned in July 2011. Production from Serra Grande increased by 46% to 98,000oz in 2012, due to the purchase of the remaining 50% shareholding from Kinross Gold Corporation on 28 June 2012.
Australasia’s production increased by 5% to 258,000oz in 2012 as production rates increased at Sunrise Dam following the remedial work to repair damage caused by a pit wall failure in 2011.
|US dollar million||Notes||2012||2011||$m change|
|Cost of sales||2||(4,062)||(3,946)||116|
|Loss on non-hedge derivatives and other commodity contracts||3||(35)||(1)||34|
|Corporate administration, marketing and other operating expenses||4||(332)||(305)||27|
|Exploration and evaluation costs||5||(395)||(279)||116|
|Adjusted headline earnings||924||1,297||(373)|
|Capital expenditure (1)||2,154||1,527||627|
- (1) Includes equity-accounted investments.
Income statement commentary
Operating profit for the year decreased from $2,202m in 2011 to $1,127m in 2012, mainly as a result of reduced gold income due to lower production levels at the South African operations following the strike action and increased safety related stoppages, higher operating costs, impairments and derecognition of assets, as well as an increase in exploration and evaluation costs.
1. Gold income
Gold income at $6,353m was 3% lower than in 2011, impacted by the production issues as outlined above. This was partly mitigated by an increase in the average gold price received from $1,576/oz to $1,664/oz in 2012, in line with higher gold spot prices.
2. Cost of sales
Cost of sales increased by 3% from $3,946m in 2011 to $4,062m in 2012. Cost of sales can be analysed as follows:
Total cash costs
Total cash costs increased by 8% from $3,028m in 2011 to $3,270m in 2012. Total cash costs per ounce increased by 18% from $728/oz to $862/oz or $829/oz without the strike impact. This was mainly due to the following:
- lower production levels mainly due to the strike and increased number of safety stoppages at South African operations which increased South Africa’s total cash costs by $98/oz;
- inflation-related increases in salaries, consumables, power and fuel;
- favourable ore stockpile movements mainly due to a plant in process lock-up in South Africa and the higher levels of heap leach at Cripple Creek & Victor, partly mitigated by lower stockpiles at the Mineração Carbon Deeps Sulphide operation;
- the other variance includes higher operating costs of the Córrego do Sítio Sulphide plant, the ramp up costs as a result of the South African strike including expensing of ore reserve development which would have been capitalised if the operation was not on strike, higher consumables usage at Cripple Creek & Victor resulting from longer waste hauls, higher energy and maintenance costs at Cerro Vanguardia, increased underground volumes from the higher cost ounces at Sunrise Dam mine.
All partly mitigated by:
- lower royalties paid mainly due to lower profitability in South Africa;
- lower deferred stripping costs mainly at Sunrise Dam, Iduapriem and Geita;
- weaker local operating currencies against the US dollar in South Africa, Brazil and Argentina; and
- the credit from the Sunrise Dam mine insurance claim and lower cost ounces from new acquisitions during 2012.
An increase of $33/oz in the group’s total cash cost was attributed to the strike action in South Africa.
|US dollar million||2012||2011||$m change|
|Total cash costs||3,270||3,028||242|
|Rehabilitation and other non-cash costs||67||229||(162)|
|Amortisation of tangible and intangible assets||798||770||28|
|Total production costs||4,145||4,042||103|
|Total cost of sales||4,062||3,946||116|
Total production costs
Total production costs increased by 3% from $4,042m in 2011 to $4,145m in 2012. Total production cost per ounce increased by 13% from $950/oz in 2011 to $1,078/oz in 2012. The increase was primarily due to an increase in total cash costs explained above.
Other items which further increased total production cost include:
- amortisation of tangible and intangible assets increased due to the reassessment of the useful lives of assets and components of property, plant and equipment, in accordance with the business plans and the higher tangible asset base.
Partly mitigated by the following:
- retrenchment costs decreased year on year;
- lower rehabilitation and other non-cash costs. In 2012, the net charge was mainly related to a change in the assumptions such as discount and inflation rates. In addition, significant credits were recognised as a consequence of the Mine Waste Solutions plant facility which can now treat tailings storage facilities, previously accounted for as part of the mine closure cost. These credits were largely offset by an increase in the accounting provision due to additional volumes in heap leach and back-filling areas at open pit operations and clean-up of environmentally damaged ponds. In 2011, the significant cost was due to a change in the design of tailings storage facilities, and a change in the methodology following requests for some regulatory agencies to backfill openpits that have been mined out; and
- weaker local operating currencies against the US dollar in South Africa, Brazil and Argentina.
3. Loss on non-hedge derivatives and other commodity contracts
The loss on the non-hedge derivatives increased from $1m in 2011 to $35m in 2012 and relates to the unrealised movement on the Mine Waste Solution onerous gold contract acquired during the year. The increase in the onerous contract liability from the date of acquisition until year end was mainly due to the significant increase in the gold price.
4. Corporate administration, marketing and other operating expenses
Corporate administration, marketing and other operating expenses increased by 9% from $305m in 2011 to $332m in 2012. The increase is attributable to:
- higher costs associated with the business improvement initiative and Project One;
- SAP implementation and higher costs associated with global information technology;
- inflation-related increases in corporate costs;
- capacity building and office costs within the Continental Africa region; and
- an increase in the past service cost relating to the post-retirement medical aid fund in South Africa.
This was partly mitigated by less due diligence expenditure in 2012, lower governmental fiscal claims, as well as a weaker SA rand to the US dollar.
5. Exploration and evaluation costs
Exploration and evaluation costs (excluding equity accounted joint ventures) increased by 42% from $279m in 2011 to $395m in 2012. This was primarily due to the increased level of expenditure at Mongbwalu in the DRC, La Colosa in Colombia, Siguiri in Guinea, Tropicana in Australia and increased brownfield exploration activities at the operating mines.
6. Special items
Special items were a net expense of $402m in 2012 compared to a net income of $163m in 2011.
This is made up as follows:
Significant movements include the following:
6.1 Impairments and derecognition of assets of $356m which occurred at Obuasi of $296m, Kopanang of $14m, Great Noligwa of $32m and Siguiri of $14m. These amounts relate to mine infrastructure, mine assets, as well as ORD impairments and derecognition. The balance relates to impairments of investments of $16m and an impairment of other receivables of $1m.
6.2 Indirect tax expenses and legal claims which include net impairment for non-recovery of VAT and fuel duties in Argentina, Colombia, Guinea and Namibia amounting to $29m and the Westchester/Africore Limited legal claim in Ghana for $11m.
6.3 Other abnormal operating costs consist of contract termination costs for Mining & Building Contractors Limited at Obuasi for $17m as well as contract settlement costs of $4m at Siguiri. In 2011, other abnormal operating costs included the modification cost of $7m for the Izingwe black economic empowerment transaction.
6.4 Impairment reversal on the Ghana tax rate concession to the amount of $10m due to the corporate tax rate increase from 25% to 35% with the rate concession of 30% still valid to 2019. In 2011, a net impairment reversal occurred at Geita due to an increase in the long-term real gold price, and a significant increase in the life-of-mine ore reserve.
6.5 Royalties received consisted mainly of the Boddington royalty of $18m, and Tau Lekoa royalty of $5m. The decrease in the Boddington royalty from $38m in 2011 is as a result of the formula set out in the agreement not being met. The prior year also included $35m from the sale of the Ayanfuri royalty.
Special items are summarised as follows:
|US dollar million||Notes||2012||2011||$m change|
|Impairment and derecognition of assets, investments and receivables||6.1||(373)||(21)||352|
|Loss on sale of assets||(15)||(8)||7|
|Indirect taxes and legal claims||6.2||(40)||(6)||34|
|Other abnormal operating costs||6.3||(21)||(7)||14|
|Net impairment reversals||6.4||10||121||(111)|
|Losses recovered through insurance claims||–||3||(3)|
|Profit on disposal of assets and investments||14||2||12|
|Total special items||(402)||163||(565)|
7. Adjusted headline earnings
Adjusted headline earnings decreased from $1,297m in 2011 to $924m in 2012. The impact of the South African strike on adjusted headline earnings was $208m. The year on year decrease of $373m is illustrated in the graph below.
- The decrease in adjusted gross profit was due to the lower production and higher operating costs, partly offset by the higher received gold price;
- Corporate costs increased by $13m (refer note 4 earlier) and exploration and evaluation costs by $116m (refer note 5 earlier);
- Net finance costs were $44m higher mainly due to interest charges on the new $750m Rated bonds issued in July 2012 and accelerated amortisation of fees on the $1bn revolving credit facility which was cancelled and repaid during July 2012. Interest received decreased as a result of lower levels of cash within the group;
- Taxation decreased by $252m when compared to 2011. The decrease is mainly due to lower earnings and the lower statutory tax rate in South Africa, the tax benefit from the Serra Grande restructure, partly mitigated by the tax asset booked in North America in 2011 and the increase in the Ghana tax rate;
- Abnormal items include contract termination costs at Obuasi of $17m, the Westchester/Africore Limited legal claim provision at Obuasi of $11m, and a provision for contract settlement costs at Siguiri of $4m. In 2011, abnormal items included the sale of the Ayanfuri royalty rights of $35m (pre-taxation), restructuring of the ESOP scheme of $7m, and a legal claim at Obuasi of $5m; and
- Other items of $62m includes primarily the lower income from associates, less royalties received, higher provisions for non-recoverable indirect taxes, increased post-retirement medical funding due to revised company contributions, partly offset by less earnings attributable to non-controlling interests.
8. Capital expenditure
Capital expenditure is summarised in the table below.
The project capital expenditure increased by $552m or 103% to $1,086m and is attributable to investment in the growth projects such as Tropicana, Kibali, Cripple Creek & Victor and Mponeng.
In light of the strikes which occurred at the South African operations during the third quarter of 2012, and management’s intention to maintain balance sheet flexibility, the capital expenditure budget for 2012 was reduced from $2.2bn to $2.1bn in the fourth quarter of 2012. Going forward, projects will be reviewed with regards to their timing and expected returns.
Capital expenditure is summarised as follows:
|US dollar million||2012||2011||$m change|
|Ore reserve development capital (ORD)||369||390||(21)|
|Total capital expenditure including equity-accounted investments||2,154||1,527||627|
|Capital expenditure of equity-accounted investments||(303)||(88)||215|
|Total capital expenditure excluding equity-accounted investments||1,851||1,439||412|
|Capitalised leased assets||(14)||(30)||(16)|
|Expenditure on intangible assets||(79)||(16)||63|
|Capital expenditure per statement of cash flows||1,758||1,393||365|
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION
An abridged statement of financial position as at 31 December is presented and variations in balances are commented on below:
|US dollar million||Notes||2012||2011||$m change|
|Tangible and intangible assets||1||7,963||6,735||1,228|
|Investments in equity accounted associates and joint|
|Cash and cash equivalents||892||1,112||(220)|
|Total equity and liabilities||12,695||10,802||1,893|
Statement of financial position commentary
The statement of financial position reflects an increase in tangible and intangible assets to $8.0bn mainly financed by net debt (excluding the mandatory convertible bond) which increased from $0.6bn in 2011, to $2.1bn in 2012. This significant increase was mainly due to:
- the funding requirements of capital projects;
- the acquisitions of First Uranium (Pty) Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Toronto-based First Uranium Corporation and the owner of Mine Waste Solutions, and the remaining 50% interest in the Serra Grande (“Crixas”) mine; and
- lower levels of cash mainly in South Africa resulting from the strike action.
Other significant events that impacted the statement of financial position were:
1. Tangible and intangible assets
The statement of financial position strengthened with tangible and intangible assets increasing from $6.7bn in 2011 to $8.0bn in 2012. This increase was mainly due to capital expenditure of $1,773m (excluding that of joint ventures) incurred during the year, tangible and intangible assets from the First Uranium (Pty) Limited acquisition in the amount of $630m, partly offset by net impairments and derecognition of tangible assets of $356m (refer special items note 6 to the income statement), the exchange effects of local currencies against the US dollar of $120m, and amortisation and depreciation of $798m.
Other movements included changes in estimates of decommissioning assets, disposals, deferred stripping costs and expenditure on oneERP SAP implementation.
2. Investments in equity accounted associates and joint ventures
Investments in equity accounted associates and joint ventures increased by 51% to $1.1bn in 2012.
During the year, some $300m was spent on the Kibali joint venture for project development. In addition, AngloGold Ashanti disposed of 5% of its interest in Rand Refinery Limited, resulting in Rand Refinery being accounted for as an associate at year end.
3. Other assets
Other assets increased from $2,253m in 2011 to $2,780m in 2012. Other assets consist mainly of inventories, deferred tax assets, cash restricted for use, trade and other receivables, and other investments.
Significant movements included:
- an increase in inventory of $423m following a build-up of ore stockpiles due to the rate of mining versus treatment capacity, an increase in ore stockpiles with the acquisition of First Uranium (Pty) Limited, an increase in heap leach inventory due to the growth of the leach pad at Cripple Creek, and an increase in consumable stores and gold in process; and
- an increase of $123m in trade and other receivables owing to trade debtors, prepayments, and recoverable taxes, levies and duties.
This was all partly offset by:
- other investments decreased by $19m, primarily due to the fair value adjustment on shares held in International Tower Hill Mines Limited.
4. Total equity
Total equity increased from $5,166m in 2011 to $5,469m in 2012.
Significant movements included:
- an increase in share capital and share premium of $53m (net of share issue expenses) due to the increase in the number of shares issued in terms of the share incentive scheme and translation;
- profit for the year of $849m;
- a decrease in other comprehensive income of $122m including foreign currency translation reserves, available-for-sale reserves and actuarial gains and losses;
- acquisition of non-controlling interest of $215m relates to the purchase of the remaining 50% shareholding in Serra Grande from Kinross Gold Corporation, which closed on 28 June 2012; and
- dividends paid to equity shareholders of $215m.
Total long- and short-term borrowings increased from $2,488m in 2011 to $3,583m in 2012.
Borrowings and related facilities are summarised as follows:
|US dollar million||2012||2011|
|Mandatory convertible bonds||Refer note 26 for conversion features||588||760|
|Rated bonds – April 2010||$700m 10-year bonds
$300m 30-year bonds
|Syndicated loan facility||A$600m||261||–|
|Rated bonds – July 2012||$750m 10-year unsecured bonds||753||–|
|3.5% Convertible bonds||Refer note 26 for conversion features||685||652|
|Syndicated loan facility||$1bn||–||–|
|Other loans and finance leases (1)||300||80|
- (1) Other loans and finance leases includes senior floating and fixed notes under the DMTNP and FirstRand Bank Limited’s demand facility amounting to $179m.
6. Deferred taxation
Deferred tax liabilities decreased from $1,158m in 2011 to $1,068m in 2012. The decrease is primarily due to a decrease in the mining tax rate in South Africa from 43% to 34%.
7. Other liabilities
Other liabilities have increased from $1,990m in 2011 to $2,575m in 2012. Other liabilities consist mainly of provisions for environmental rehabilitation, pension and post-retirement benefits, trade, other payables and deferred income, financial derivatives and taxation payable.
Significant movements included:
- increased environmental rehabilitation and other provisions of $365m, being the long-term portion of the Franco Nevada contract acquired with the acquisition of First Uranium (Pty) Limited; and
- increases in trade, other payables and deferred income of $224m owing mainly to the higher level of trade and other creditors, and accruals in line with higher capital expenditure, as well as trade and other payables from the acquisition of First Uranium (Pty) Limited.
This was all partly offset by:
- a decrease of $83m relating mainly to a drop in the fair value of the option component of the convertible bonds.
STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
An analysis of the abridged statement of cash flows is presented and significant variations in balances are commented on below:
|US dollar million||Notes||2012||2011||$m change|
|Cash generated from operations||1||2,183||2,923||(740)|
|Dividends received from equity-accounted investments||72||111||(39)|
|Net taxation paid||(453)||(379)||(74)|
|Net cash inflow from operating activities||1,802||2,655||(853)|
|Capital expenditure, including intangible assets||2.1||(1,837)||(1,409)||(428)|
|Net proceeds from the (acquisition) and disposal of tangible assets, investments, associates and joint venture loans||2.2||(399)||(177)||(222)|
|Net subsidiaries (acquired) disposed||2.3||(355)||(2)||(353)|
|Other investing activities||(53)||(15)||(38)|
|Net cash outflow from investing activities||(2,608)||(1,564)||(1,044)|
|Net proceeds from share issues||3.1||2||9||(7)|
|Net borrowings proceeds (repaid)||3.2||1,215||(159)||1,374|
|Dividends and finance costs paid||(381)||(313)||(68)|
|Other financing activities||(245)||–||(245)|
|Net cash inflow (outflow) from financing activities||591||(463)||1,054|
|Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents||(215)||628||(843)|
|Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year||1,112||586||526|
|Cash and cash equivalents at end of year||892||1,112||(220)|
Statement of cash flows commentary
The decrease in the closing cash position followed from the lower production and higher operating costs and capital expenditure. In addition, $550m net cash was paid for the purchase of the non-controlling interest in Serra Grande and the acquisition of First Uranium (Pty) Limited.
1. Operating activities
The movements in production and operating costs decreased cash generated from operations by $740m from $2,923m to $2,183m in 2012. Movements in working capital resulted in a net outflow of $218m in 2012, compared with a $170m in the prior year, and were due to increased levels of trade and other receivables and inventories, partly mitigated by higher trade and other payables.
2. Investing activities
2.1 Capital expenditure including intangible assets, increased from $1,409m in 2011 to $1,837m in 2012 (refer capital note 8 earlier).
2.2 Net proceeds from the (acquisition) and disposal of tangible assets, investments, associates and joint venture loans was $399m in 2012, compared with $177m in 2011. In 2012, some $300m was advanced to Kibali joint venture for project development. In 2011, the most significant movements were the acquisition of a non-controlling interest in First Uranium Corporation for $30m, and additional investments in associates and joint ventures primarily for exploration funding of $115m. The balance of the movements relate mainly to real estate activities in Brazil, investments in the environmental rehabilitation trust funds, and other sundry investment purchases and disposals.
2.3 Net subsidiaries (acquired) disposed was a net outflow of $355m in 2012 compared with a net outflow of $2m in the prior year. In 2012, the most significant movements were the acquisition of First Uranium (Pty) Limited for $335m as well as the purchase of the remaining 50% interest in Serra Grande for $220m less $5m for dividends declared and paid to non-controlling interests. First Uranium (Pty) Limited reported $5m cash at the date of purchase and Rand Refinery Limited reported $31m cash on date of partial disposal. In 2011, the company disposed of its investment in ISS International for $9m and it reported $11m in cash at this date.
3. Financing activities
3.1 Net proceeds from the issue of shares decreased from $9m to $2m in 2012. In 2012 and 2011, the movements related to shares issued in terms of the employee share scheme.
3.2 During 2012, borrowing repayments of $217m were primarily on the $1bn syndicated loan facility. Borrowings proceeds of $1,432m included proceeds of $737m from the rated bonds issued in July 2012, $262m (USD) from the A$600m syndicated loan facility, and $200m from the $1bn syndicated loan facility. The balance of the proceeds relate to draw-downs on other loan borrowing facilities. During 2011, borrowings repayments were $268m and included repayments of $150m on the $1bn syndicated loan facility, and $107m on the R1.5bn FirstRand Bank Limited loan.
Borrowing proceeds mainly included proceeds of $100m from the $1bn syndicated loan facility which was repaid during 2011.
The company remains committed to focusing on the cash returns to shareholders whilst considering cash flow, investment needs and the financial strength of the business in the context of delivering on its business plan and strategic growth objectives.
The unprotected strike action at the South African operations, which started late in the third quarter, had an adverse impact on the company’s results. During October 2012, following the downgrade of the South African sovereign ratings, Standard & Poor’s (S&P) announced that the company was being placed on credit watch negative, which may result in downgrading the company’s credit rating below investment grade. On the basis of these developments and management’s efforts to decrease expenditures whilst retaining confidence in the long-term outlook, the Board reduced its third quarter dividend to 50 South African cents per ordinary share.
Subsequent to the company being placed on “credit watch negative” during December 2012, S&P reaffirmed the investment grade rating albeit with a negative outlook. AngloGold Ashanti remains the only South African mining company not to be downgraded by S&P.
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING MATTERS DURING THE PERIOD
From 1 January 2012, AngloGold Ashanti changed the presentation currency of its results from reporting in US Dollars and South African Rands to reporting only in US Dollars. Management has concluded that the change in presentation currency will result in more relevant information than the prior position of reporting in two currencies. Management considered the following factors: the majority of AngloGold Ashanti’s operating mines using US Dollars as their functional currency; the majority of AngloGold Ashanti’s annual production and reserves are derived from non-South African Rand denominated countries; the majority of AngloGold Ashanti shareholders are not domiciled in a South African Rand denominated country; management prepare investor presentations and analysis in US Dollars only; and the management accounts except for South Africa which is reported in dual currency, are reported to the Chief Operating Decision Maker in US Dollars. The change in presentation currency has no effect on comparative information.
On 8 February 2012, the transaction to dispose of the AngloGold Ashanti-Polymetal Strategic Alliance consisting of AngloGold Ashanti-Polymetal Strategic Alliance Management Company Holdings Limited, Amikan Holdings Limited, AS APK Holdings Limited, Imitzoloto Holdings Limited and Yeniseiskaya Holdings Limited to Polyholding Limited was completed. The consideration received for the disposal was $20m.
On 29 May 2012, AngloGold Ashanti, which held, through a subsidiary, a 50% interest in Serra Grande mine in Brazil, agreed to acquire the remaining 50% stake in the mine from Kinross Gold Corporation for $220m in cash. The transaction closed on 28 June 2012.
On 20 July 2012, AngloGold Ashanti acquired First Uranium (Pty) Limited, the owner of Mine Waste Solutions in South Africa, for a cash consideration of $335m.
On 23 July 2012, AngloGold Ashanti announced that it had signed a new US$1bn, five-year unsecured revolving credit facility (RCF) maturing in July 2017 with a banking syndicate. The facility replaced the four-year, US$1bn unsecured RCF maturing in April 2014.
On 25 July 2012, AngloGold Ashanti announced the pricing of an offering of $750m aggregate principal amount of 5.125% notes due 2022. The notes were issued by AngloGold Ashanti Holdings plc. a wholly owned subsidiary of the company, at an issue price of 99.398%. The company received net proceeds from the offering of $737m, after deducting discounts and estimated expenses. The notes are unsecured and fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the company.
During October 2012, the JSE Limited granted AngloGold Ashanti the listing of its Senior Unsecured Fixed Rate Notes of R300m, due 14 January 2013, and Senior Unsecured Floating Rate Notes of R700m, due 11 October 2013, under its R10bn Domestic Medium Term Note Programme date 29 June 2012.
In early December 2012, AngloGold Ashanti Limited disposed of a 5% interest in Rand Refinery Limited for a total cash consideration of $6m. AngloGold Ashanti Limited now holds a remaining interest of 48.03% and this interest is accounted for as an associate.
The consolidated and company financial statements are prepared in compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and Interpretations of those standards, as adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and applicable legislation.
In 2013, the group will adopt IFRIC 20. The group expects IFRIC 20 to have an impact as a consequence of moving from a life-of-mine strip ratio to a strip ratio applicable to a component of an ore body. IFRIC 20 considers when and how to account separately for the benefits arising from stripping activities in the production phase, as well as how to measure these benefits both initially and subsequently. The benefits that can accrue to the entity in an open-pit mine include: usable ore that can be used to produce inventory and improved access to further quantities of material that will be mined in future periods. IFRIC 20 only deals with waste removal costs that are incurred in surface mining activity during the production phase of the mine ‘production stripping costs’) and thus does not have an effect on the accounting for the development of an open-pit mine or on underground activities. The group is still evaluating the financial impact of IFRIC 20.