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Annual report suite 2012

Glossary

Glossary of terms and Non-GAAP metrics

Adjusted gross margin:
Adjusted gross profit (loss) divided by gold sales including realised non-hedge derivatives, expressed as a percentage.
Adjusted gross profit (loss):
Gross profit (loss) excluding unrealised non-hedge derivatives and other commodity contracts.
Adjusted headline earnings (loss):
Headline earnings (loss) excluding unrealised non-hedge derivatives, fair value adjustments on the mandatory convertible bonds and the option component of the convertible bonds, adjustments to other commodity contracts and deferred tax thereon.
All injury frequency rate:
The total number of injuries and fatalities that occurs per million hours worked.
Available-for-sale financial asset:
A financial asset that has been designated as available-for-sale or a financial asset other than those classified as loans and receivables, held-to-maturity investments or derivative instruments.
Average number of employees:
The monthly average number of production and non-production employees and contractors employed during the year, where contractors are defined as individuals who have entered into a fixed-term contract of employment with a group company or subsidiary. Employee numbers of joint ventures represents the group’s attributable share.
By-products:
Any products that emanate from the core process of producing gold, including silver, uranium and sulphuric acid.
Capital expenditure:
Total capital expenditure on tangible assets which includes stay-in-business and project capital.
Carbon-in-leach (CIL):
Gold is leached from a slurry of gold ore with cyanide in agitated tanks and adsorbed on to carbon granules in the same circuit. The carbon granules are separated from the slurry and treated in an elution circuit to remove the gold.
Carbon-in-pulp (CIP):
Gold is leached conventionally from a slurry of gold ore with cyanide in agitated tanks. The leached slurry then passes into the CIP circuit where carbon granules are mixed with the slurry and gold is adsorbed on to the carbon. The granules are separated from the slurry and treated in an elution circuit to remove the gold.
Cash flow hedge:
A hedge of exposure to variability in cash flows, that is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability or a highly probable or a forecasted transaction and could affect profit or loss.
Comminution:
Comminution is the crushing and grinding of ore to make gold available for treatment. (See also “Milling”).
Contained gold:
The total gold content (tons multiplied by grade) of the material being described.
Cut-off grade (surface mines):
The minimum grade at which a unit of ore will be mined to achieve the desired economic outcome.
Depletion:
The decrease in the quantity of ore in a deposit or property resulting from extraction or production.
Development:
The process of accessing an orebody through shafts and/or tunneling in underground mining operations.
Doré:
Impure alloy of gold and silver produced at a mine to be refined to a higher purity, usually consisting of 85% gold on average.
Electro-winning:
A process of recovering gold from solution by means of electrolytic chemical reaction into a form that can be smelted easily into gold bars.
Elution:
Recovery of the gold from the activated carbon into solution before zinc precipitation or electro-winning.
EBITDA:
Operating profit (loss) before amortisation of tangible and intangible assets, impairment of tangible and intangible assets, profit (loss) on disposal of assets and investments and unrealised non-hedge derivatives, hedge buy-back and restructuring costs plus the share of associates’ EBITDA, less profit (loss) from discontinued operations.
Effective tax rate:
Current and deferred taxation as a percentage of profit before taxation.
Equity:
Total equity plus the mandatory convertible bonds. Where average equity is referred to, this is calculated by averaging the figures at the beginning and the end of the financial year.
Feasibility study:
A comprehensive design and costing study of the selected option for the development of a mineral project in which appropriate assessments have been made of realistically assumed geological, mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social, governmental, engineering, operational and all other modifying factors, which are considered in sufficient detail to demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified (economically mineable) and the factors reasonably serve as the basis for a final decision to proceed with the development of the project. The overall confidence of the study should be stated.
Financial asset:
Cash or cash equivalents, an equity instrument, a contractual right to receive cash, or a contractual right to exchange a financial instrument under favorable conditions.
Financial liability:
A contractual obligation to pay cash, deliver equity or transfer other benefits or a contractual obligation to exchange a financial instrument under unfavorable conditions. This includes debt.
Gain (loss) on non-hedge derivatives and other commodity contracts:
Fair value changes on derivatives that are neither designated as meeting the normal sale exemption under IAS 39, nor designated as cash flow hedges and other commodity contracts.
Gain (loss) on realised non-hedge derivatives:
Represents the cash inflow or outflow impact on the income statement of non- hedge derivatives that were settled during the current year.
Gain (loss) on unrealised non-hedge derivatives and other commodity contracts:
This represents the change in fair value, including translation differences, of all open non-hedge derivative positions and adjustments to other commodity contracts from the previous reporting date or date of recognition (if later) through to the current reporting date.
Gold produced:
Refined gold in a saleable form derived from the mining process.
Grade:
The quantity of gold contained within a unit weight of gold-bearing material generally expressed in ounces per short ton of ore (oz/t), or grams per metric tonne (g/t).
Held-to-maturity investment:
A financial asset with a fixed maturity and fixed or determinable future payments, that management has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity. The financial asset is classified as a non-current asset, except when it has a maturity within twelve months from the reporting date, in which case it is classified as a current asset.
Indicated Mineral Resource:
An ‘Indicated Mineral Resource’ is that part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence. It is based on exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are too widely or inappropriately spaced to confirm geological and/or grade continuity but are spaced closely enough for continuity to be assumed.
Inferred Mineral Resource:
An ‘Inferred Mineral Resource’ is that part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological and/or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes which may be limited or of uncertain quality and reliability.
Interest cover:
EBITDA divided by finance costs.
Leaching:
Dissolution of gold from crushed or milled material, including reclaimed slime, prior to adsorption on to activated carbon.
Loans and receivables:
A financial asset with fixed or determinable repayments that are not quoted in an active market, other than, a derivative instrument, or a financial asset classified as available-for-sale.
Marked-to market:
The fair value change of all financial instruments since initial recognition, net of premiums.
Measured Mineral Resource:
A ‘Measured Mineral Resource’ is that part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a high level of confidence. It is based on detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are spaced closely enough to confirm geological and grade continuity.
Metallurgical plant:
A processing plant constructed to treat ore and extract gold.
Milling:
A process of reducing broken ore to a size at which concentrating can be undertaken. (See also “Comminution”).
Mine call factor:
The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the total quantity of recovered and unrecovered mineral product after processing with the amount estimated in the ore based on sampling. The ratio of contained gold delivered to the metallurgical plant divided by the estimated contained gold of ore mined based on sampling.
Mineral deposit:
A mineral deposit is a concentration (or occurrence) of material of possible economic interest in or on the earth’s crust.
Mineral Resource:
A ‘Mineral Resource’ is a concentration or occurrence of material of intrinsic economic interest in or on the earth’s crust in such form, quality and quantity that there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction. The location, quantity, grade, geological characteristics and continuity of a Mineral Resource are known, estimated or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge. A Mineral Resource is subdivided, in order of increasing geological confidence, into Inferred, Indicated and Measured categories.
Monetary asset:
An asset which will be settled in a fixed or easily determinable amount of money.
Net asset value per share:
Total equity per the statement of financial position plus the mandatory convertible bonds divided by shares in issue.
Net debt:
Borrowings (excluding the Turbine Square Two (Proprietary) Limited lease and the mandatory convertible bonds, adjusted for the unamortised portion of the convertible and rated bonds) less cash.
Net capital employed:
Total equity adjusted for other comprehensive income, actuarial gain (loss) and deferred taxation plus interest-bearing borrowings, less cash and cash equivalents and adjusted for capital expenditure incurred on assets not yet in production. Where average net capital employed is referred to, this is the average of the figures at the beginning and the end of the financial year.
Net operating assets:
Tangible assets, current and non-current portion of inventories, current and non-current trade and other receivables (excluding recoverable tax, rebates, levies and duties), less current and non-current trade, other payables and deferred income (excluding unearned premiums on normal sale extended contracts).
Net tangible asset value per share:
Total equity as per the statement of financial position plus the mandatory convertible bonds less intangible assets, divided by the number of ordinary shares in issue.
Operating cash flow:
Net cash inflow from operating activities less stay-in-business capital expenditure.
Ore Reserve:
An ‘Ore Reserve’ is the economically mineable part of a Measured and/or Indicated Mineral Resource. It includes diluting materials and allowances for losses, which may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments and studies have been carried out, and include consideration of and modification by realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate that at the time of reporting, extraction could reasonably be justified. An Ore Reserve is subdivided in order of increasing confidence into Probable Ore Reserve and Proved Ore Reserve.
Ounce (oz) (troy):
Used in imperial statistics. A kilogram is equal to 32.1507 ounces. A troy ounce is equal to 31.1035 grams.
Pay limit:
The grade of a unit of ore at which the revenue from the recovered mineral content of the ore is equal to the sum of total cash costs, closure costs, Ore Reserve development and stay-in-business capital. This grade is expressed as an in situ value in grams per tonne or ounces per short ton (before dilution and mineral losses).
Precipitate:
The solid product of chemical reaction by fluids such as the zinc precipitation referred to below.
Prefeasibility study:
A comprehensive study of the viability of a range of options for a mineral project that has advanced to a stage at which the preferred mining method in the case of underground mining or the pit configuration in the case of an open pit has been established, and an effective method of mineral processing has been determined. It includes a financial analysis based on realistic assumptions of technical, engineering, operating, economic factors and the evaluation of other relevant factors that are sufficient for a competent person, acting reasonably, to determine if all or part of the Mineral Resource may be classified as a Mineral Reserve. The overall confidence of the study should be stated. A prefeasibility study is at a lower confidence level than a feasibility study.
Price received ($/oz and R/kg):
Attributable gold income including realised non-hedge derivatives divided by attributable ounces or kilograms sold.
Probable Ore Reserve:
A ‘Probable Ore Reserve’ is the economically mineable part of an Indicated, and in some circumstances, a Measured Mineral Resource. It includes diluting materials and allowances for losses which may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments and studies have been carried out, and include consideration of and modification by realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction could reasonably be justified.
Productivity:
An expression of labor productivity based on the ratio of ounces of gold produced per month to the total number of employees in mining operations.
Proved Ore Reserve:
A ‘Proved Ore Reserve’ is the economically mineable part of a Measured Mineral Resource. It includes diluting materials and allowances for losses which may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments and studies have been carried out, and include consideration of and modification by realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction could reasonably be justified.
Project capital:
Capital expenditure to either bring a new operation into production; to materially increase production capacity; or to materially extend the productive life of an asset.
Reclamation:
In the South African context, reclamation describes the process of reclaiming slimes (tailings) dumps using high- pressure water cannons to form a slurry which is pumped back to the metallurgical plants for processing.
Recovered grade:
The recovered mineral content per unit of ore treated.
Reef:
A gold-bearing sedimentary horizon, normally a conglomerate band that may contain economic levels of gold.
Refining:
The final purification process of a metal or mineral.
Region:
Defines the operational management divisions within AngloGold Ashanti Limited, namely South Africa, Continental Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Namibia and Tanzania), Australasia, and the Americas (Argentina, Brazil and United States of America).
Rehabilitation:
The process of reclaiming land disturbed by mining to allow an appropriate post-mining use. Rehabilitation standards are defined by country-specific laws, including but not limited to the South African Department of Mineral Resources, the US Bureau of Land Management, the US Forest Service, and the relevant Australian mining authorities, and address among other issues, ground and surface water, topsoil, final slope gradient, waste handling and re-vegetation issues.
Related party:
Parties are considered related if one party has the ability to control the other party or exercise significant influence over the other party in making financial and operating decisions.
Return on net capital:
Adjusted headline earnings before net finance costs and hedge buy-back costs expressed as a percentage of average net capital employed.
Return on equity:
Adjusted headline earnings before finance costs on the mandatory convertible bonds and hedge buy-back costs expressed as a percentage of average equity.
Seismic event:
A sudden inelastic deformation within a given volume of rock that radiates detectable seismic energy.
Shaft:
A vertical or subvertical excavation used for accessing an underground mine; for transporting personnel, equipment and supplies; for hoisting ore and waste; for ventilation and utilities; and/or as an auxiliary exit.
Significant influence:
The ability, directly or indirectly, to participate in, but not exercise control over, the financial and operating policy decision of an entity so as to obtain economic benefit from its activities.
Smelting:
A pyro-metallurgical operation in which gold is further separated from impurities.
Stay-in-business capital:
Capital expenditure to extend useful lives of existing production assets. This includes replacement of vehicles, plant and machinery, Ore Reserve development and capital expenditure related to safety, health and the environment.
Stope:
Underground excavation where the orebody is extracted.
Stoping:
The process of excavating ore underground.
Stripping ratio:
The ratio of waste tonnes to ore tonnes mined calculated as total tonnes mined less ore tonnes mined divided by ore tonnes mined.
Tailings:
Finely ground rock of low residual value from which valuable minerals have been extracted.
Tailings dam (slimes dam):
Dam facilities designed to store discarded tailings.
Tonne:
Used in metric statistics. Equal to 1,000 kilograms.
Ton:
Used in imperial statistics. Equal to 2,000 pounds. Referred to as a short ton.
Tonnage:
Quantity of material measured in tonnes or tons.
Total cash costs:
Total cash costs include site costs for all mining, processing and administration, reduced by contributions from by-products and are inclusive of royalties and production taxes. Amortization, rehabilitation, corporate administration, retrenchment, capital and exploration costs are excluded.

Total cash costs per ounce are the attributable total cash costs divided by the attributable ounces of gold produced.
Total production costs:
Total cash costs plus amortization, retrenchment, rehabilitation and other non-cash costs. Corporate administration and exploration costs are excluded.

Total production costs per ounce are the attributable total production costs divided by the attributable ounces of gold produced.
Waste:
Material that contains insufficient mineralization for consideration for future treatment and, as such, is discarded.
Weighted average number of ordinary shares:
The number of ordinary shares in issue at the beginning of the year, increased by shares issued during the year, weighted on a time basis for the period during which they have participated in the income of the group, and increased by share options that are virtually certain to be exercised.
Zinc precipitation:
Zinc precipitation is the chemical reaction using zinc dust that converts gold in solution to a solid form for smelting into unrefined gold bars.

Abbreviations

$
United States dollars
A$ or AUD
Australian dollars
ADS
American Depositary Share
ADR
American Depositary Receipt
AIFR
All injury frequency rate
ARS
Argentinean peso
ASX
Australian Securities Exchange
Au
Contained gold
BBSY
Bank bill swap bid rate
BEE
Black Economic Empowerment
BRL
Brazilian real
bn
Billion
C$ or CAD
Canadian dollars
capex
Capital expenditure
CDI
CHESS Depositary Interests
CHESS
Clearing House Electronic Settlement System
DMTNP
Domestic medium-term notes programme
ERP
Enterprise resource planning
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
FIFR
Fatal injury frequency rate
g
Grams
g/t
Grams per tonne
GHC, cedi or ¢
Ghanaian cedi
GhDS
Ghanaian Depositary Share
GhSE
Ghana Stock Exchange
IASB
International Accounting Standards Board
IFRS
International Financial Reporting Standards
IOE
International Organisation of Employees
JORC
Australasian Code for Reporting Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves
JIBAR
Johannesburg Interbank Agreed Rate
JSE
JSE Limited
King Code
South African King Code on Corporate Governance, 2009 (King III)
kg
Kilograms
LSE
London Stock Exchange
LIBOR
London Interbank Offer Rate
LOM
Life of mine
M or m
Metre or million, depending on the context
Moz
Million ounces
Mt
Million tonnes or tons
Mtpa
Million tonnes/tons per annum
N$ or NAD
Namibian dollars
NYSE
New York Stock Exchange
oz
Ounces (troy)
oz/t
Ounces per ton
oz/TEC
Ounces per total employee costed
R, ZAR or Rand
South African rands
SAMREC
South African Code for the Reporting of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves 2007 Edition
SEC
United States Securities and Exchange Commission
SOX
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
t
Tons (short) or tonnes (metric)
US/USA/United States
United States of America
 
VCR
Ventersdorp Contact Reef